* The definitions denoted with an asterisk were obtained from the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America.
Affiliate – An entity which is directly or indirectly owned, operated, or controlled by another entity.
Agent – A legal representative of buyers, sellers or shippers of natural gas in negotiation or operations of contractual agreements.
ANGA – American Natural Gas Association
API – American Petroleum Institutes
Approved Bidders – Pre-arranged replacement shippers.
Back-Fill – Earth or other material that has been used to refill a ditch or trench. Also, the act of refilling a ditch or trench.
Backfilling – The technique for covering a completed pipeline so that adequate fill material is provided underneath the pipe as well as above it.
Backhaul – A “paper transport” of natural gas by displacement against the flow on a single pipeline, so that the natural gas is redelivered upstream of its point of receipt.
*BACT – Best Available Control Technology
Blow Down – The process of reducing gas pressures by means of releasing such pressures to atmosphere.
Bore – To penetrate or pierce with a rotary tool. A technique to cross roads, water courses, or other utilities.
Bottled gas, LPG, or propane – Any fuel gas supplied to a building in liquid form, such as liquefied petroleum gas, propane, or butane. It is usually delivered by tank truck and stored near the building in a tank or cylinder until used.
British Thermal Unit (BTU) – The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.*
Burner Tip – The end of the transportation of natural gas from the wellhead, and the point of consumption.*
Butt-Weld – The joining of two ends of a pipe or other material laid end-to-end by full penetration welds
Capacity – The maximum amount of natural gas that can be produced, transported, stored, distributed, or utilized in a given period of time under design conditions.*
Capacity Factor – The ratio of the actual sales of capacity during any specified period to the maximum amount of sales the system is capable of delivering during that time.
Capacity Release – The assignment, allocation, or release of firm gas transportation rights to another party authorized under Order No. 636, done on a permanent or temporary basis, and awarded to the highest bidder. *
Capacity, Pipeline – The maximum throughput of natural gas over a specified period of time for which a pipeline system or portion thereof is designed or constructed, not limited by existing service conditions. *
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – A gaseous substance at standard conditions composed of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms, produced when fossil fuels are burned, and is thought to be a major contributor to the “greenhouse effect.” Combustion of natural gas emits only about 50% as much carbon dioxide as combustion of coal. *
Carbon Monoxide – A poisonous, combustible gas formed by incomplete combustion of carbon, or reduction of carbon dioxide.
Casing – A length of pipe used for encasing a smaller diameter carrier pipe for installation in a well or under a road, etc.
Cathodic Protection – Cathodic protection refers to the method of preventing corrosion in metal structures that involves using electric voltage to slow or prevent corrosion. It is used along natural gas pipelines, as well as in certain bridges or other large metal structures that need to resist corrosion over an extended period of time.
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity – Authorization to sell for resale or to transport natural gas in interstate commerce; or to construct, or acquire and operate, any facilities necessary therefore, subject to FERC jurisdiction under Section 7 of the NGA. May also refer to a similar permit issued by a state commission to a gas utility. *
CFR – Code of Federal Regulations
Clean Air Act of 1970 – Mandated restrictions on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from power plants.
CNG – Compressed Natural Gas
Commission – (1) In the context of futures trading, the fee charged by a futures broker for executing an order, (2) The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, (3) State Public Utility’s Commission(s). *
Commodity Charge – A charge per unit of service actually delivered to the buyer. *
Commodity Costs (Rates) – Those costs that are allocated on the basis of actual use of service. *
Compressor – A mechanical device for increasing the pressure of a gas. *
Compressor Stations – Facility that provides energy to move natural gas within a pipeline by increasing the pressure of the gas at the discharge side of the facility compared to the intake side. *
Confidentiality Agreement – A written legal agreement between Iroquois and another party, generally providing that, except in certain circumstances, confidential and proprietary information of either party (such as financial information of a privately held entity) is to be kept confidential and not disclosed by the other party.
Connection – The physical junction between two pipeline; usually transmission lines.
Consumer – The ultimate user of natural gas, as contrasted to a “customer” who may purchase natural gas for resale.*
Contracted gas – Any gas for which Interstate Pipeline has a contract to purchase from any domestic or foreign source that cannot be identified to a specific field or group. This includes tailgate plant purchases, single meter point purchases, pipeline purchases, natural gas imports, SNG purchases, and LNG purchases.
Cubic Foot – The most common unit of measurement of gas volume; the amount of gas required to fill a volume of one cubic foot under stated conditions of temperature, pressure, and water vapor.
DEC – Department of Environmental Conservation
DEIS – Draft Environmental Impact Statement
Decatherm – A unit of heating value equivalent to 10 therms or approximately 1,000,000 Btu’s.
Delivery Point – Point where gas is transferred to the end user from the pipeline.
Demand – The rate at which electric energy or natural gas is delivered to or by a system at a given instant or averaged over a designated period, usually expressed in kilowatts or megawatts (electric); Mcfs or MMBtus (natural gas). *
Demand Charge – The Demand Charge portion of rate design is expected to recover the costs associated with the level of demand for the particular service and will be paid even if no service is taken by the customer; a reservation charge. Included in demand charges are capital-related costs and the cost of operation and maintenance of generation, transmission, and distribution. *
Department of Energy (DOE) – A cabinet-level department of the Executive Branch of the Federal government.
Directional Drilling – A technique of crossing rivers or interstate highways in pipeline construction in which the pipe is buried under the riverbed or roadway at depths much greater than those of conventional crossings. With this technique, a hole in the form of an inverted arc is drilled beneath the river or roadbed and the actual made-up pipeline is pulled through it.
Distribution – Mains, service connections, and equipment that carry or control the supply of natural gas from the point of local supply to and including the sales meters.*
Distribution Company – Gas Company that obtains the major portion of its gas operating revenues from the operation of a retail gas Distribution system, and which operates no transmission system other than incidental connections within its own system or to the system of another company. For purposes of A.G.A. statistics, a distribution companies obtains at least 90 percent of its gas operating revenues from sales to ultimate customers, and classifies at least 90 percent of mains (other than service pipe) as distribution.
DOT – Department of Transportation
Dry natural gas – Natural gas which remains after: 1) the liquefiable hydrocarbon portion has been removed from the gas stream (i.e., gas after lease, field, and/or plant separation); and 2) any volumes of nonhydrocarbon gases have been removed where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Note: Dry natural gas is also known as consumer-grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute.
Dth/d – Decatherms Per Day
Easement – An acquired privilege or right, distinct from ownership of the soil, to use a specified area for certain specified uses.
EBB – Electronic Bulletin Board
EDI – Electronic Data Interchange
Efficiency(E) – Relating to heat, a percentage indicating the available Btu input that is converted to useful purposes. It is applied, generally, to combustion equipment.*
End-User – One who actually consumes energy, as opposed to one who sells or re-sells it.*
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – A federal agency charged with protecting the environment.*
FEIS – Final Environmental Impact Statement
FERC – Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Firm Service – Service offered to customers under schedules or contracts that anticipate no interruptions, regardless of class of service, except for force majeure.*
Force Majeure – A common law concept borrowed from the French civil law. “Force majeure” means superior or irresistible force that excuses a failure to perform. It has been defined by the United States Supreme Court as a cause that is “beyond the control and without the fault or negligence” of the party excused. Force majeure events also must not have been reasonably foreseeable; e.g., a blizzard in Houston in January may be a force majeure event, but a blizzard in Montana will not qualify. *
Fossil Fuel – Fuel such as coal, crude oil or natural gas, formed from the fossil remains of organic material. *
Fuel Cell – A device that generates direct current to electricity by means of an electrochemical process. *
Fuel Gas – A quantity of gas required by a transporter to provide the transportation service. Fuel gas includes, but is not limited to, gas consumed in transporter’s mainline compressor station, gathering system booster stations, and processing plants.
Gas – That state of matter which has neither independent shape nor volume. Gas expands to fill the entire container in which it is held. Gas is one of the three forms of matter: solid, liquid and gas. *
Gas Controller – A person or persons assigned the task of monitoring and controlling daily gas system operations and ensuring safety of a pipeline or distribution system.
Gas Generator – The section of a gas-turbine that provides the high temperature gases needed to drive the power turbine.
Gas Transported for Others – Natural gas owned by another company received into and transported through any part of a pipeline transmission system under a transportation agreement. *
Gas Turbine – A prime mover in which gas, under pressure or formed by combustion, is directed against a series of turbine blades; the energy in the expanding gas is converted into mechanical energy supplying power at the shaft.
Gas, Natural – A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases (mainly methane, CH4) found in porous geologic formations beneath the earth’s surface, often in association with petroleum. *
Guidance Manual FERC – Guidance Manual for Environmental Report Preparation Horizontal Drilling
Horizontal Drilling – Heralded today as “causing the greatest change in the industry since the invention of the rotary bit,” is the most rapidly growing movement in the petroleum industry. Essentially, in addition to the vertical shaft in an oil or gas well, special equipment allows producers to extend horizontal shafts into areas that could not otherwise be reached.
Horsepower (hp) – A unit of power; equivalent to 33,000 ft-lb per minute or 550 ft-lb per second (mechanical horsepower), or 0.746 kilowatts.
Hot Tap – The connection of branch piping to an operating line, and the tapping of the operating line while it is under pressure.
HP – Horsepower
Hydrostatic Test – A strength test of equipment (pipe) in which the item is filled with liquid, subjected to suitable pressure, and then shut in, and the pressure monitored. Also a test to determine whether a container will hold a certain pressure.
Interruptible Service – A level of service that, in accordance with contractual arrangements, can be interrupted by direct control of the system operator or by action of the customer at the direct request of the system operator.
Interstate Pipeline – A natural gas pipeline company that is engaged in the transportation of natural gas across state boundaries, and is therefore subject to FERC jurisdiction and/or FERC regulation under the NGA. *
Joint – A single length of steel pipe (usually 40 feet).
Kilowatt (KW) – A unit of electrical work equivalent to 1,000 watts, 1.3414 horsepower, or .9478 Btu/sec. Land Man – A person concerned with the acquisition of leases, clearing of land titles, payment of lease rentals, and other related activities. Also Right of Way Agent.
Lateral – A pipe that branches away from the central and primary part of the system. *
LDC – Local Distribution Company
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) – A gas containing certain specific hydrocarbons, which are gaseous under normal atmospheric conditions, but can be liquefied under moderate pressure at normal temperatures. Propane and butane are the principal examples. Liquids, Natural Gas (LNG)– Those liquid hydrocarbon mixtures that are gases at reservoir temperatures and pressures, but can be recovered by condensation or absorption. Natural gasoline and liquefied petroleum gases fall in this category. *
Looping – Laying additional pipeline beside and connected to an existing pipeline in order to increase the capacity of the system.*
Mains – Distribution Pipes transporting gas within service areas to the point of connection with the service pipe.
Marsh Gas Methane (CH4) – The primary constituent of natural gas. Results from the partial decay of plants in swamps.
Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) – An independent office reporting to the Secretary of Transportation of the United States Government charged with enforcing the Pipeline Safety Act. MTB, among other functions, receives reports of safety-related incidents from gas system operators and periodically issues revisions and interpretations to the Minimum Federal Safety Standard (49 CFR 192).
Maximum Operating Pressure – The maximum actual operating pressure existing in a piping system during a normal annual operating cycle.
Maximum Transportation Rate – The maximum rates that an open-access transporter may charge for its services. Section 284.7(c) of the Commission’s regulations states that maximum rates for both peak and off-peak periods should ration capacity during peak periods and maximize throughput.
Mcf – One thousand cubic feet of natural gas. *
MDQ – The term MDQ refers to the Maximum Daily Quantity of gas that a buyer, seller, or transporter is obligated to receive or deliver at each receipt or delivery point as specified in an agreement.
Metering and Regulating Station – Facilities installed at a given location for measuring and regulating the flow of gas in connection with distribution system operations other than the measurement of gas deliveries to customers.
Methane (CH4) – The lightest in the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. It is colorless, odorless and flammable; the major portion of marsh gas and natural gas. *
Minimum Federal Safety Standard Part 192 – This refers to Title 49, Part 192, of the code of Federal Regulations and contains the legal minimum requirements for gas transportation within the United States.
MM Btu – One million British thermal units. *
MMcf – One million cubic feet of natural gas. *
MP – Milepost
MS – Meter Station
MW – Megawatt
NAAQS – National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAESB – North American Energy Standards Board
National Energy Act of 1978 (NEA) – A comprehensive energy statute comprised of five separate but intertwined public laws dealing with energy conservation (The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, P.L. 95-619); coal conversion (The Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act, P.L. 95-620); public utility rates (The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act, P.L. 95-617); natural gas pricing (The Natural Gas Policy Act, P.L. 95-621); and a series of taxes (Energy Tax Act, P.L. 95-618) designed to discourage energy consumption and to accelerate the transition to alternative fuels. The five bills were signed into law on November 9, 1978. The main purpose of the NEA is to reduce oil imports and promote more efficient use of energy in this country.
Natural Gas – A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geological formations beneath the earth’s surface, often in association with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane, CH4. *
Natural Gas Act of 1938 – A federal statute enacted in 1938 to provide regulatory control over the interstate sale and transportation of natural gas. Under the NGA, the Federal Power Commission was given two major powers: (1) the power to issue certificates of public convenience and necessity authorizing construction and operation of facilities and the provision of services, and (2) the power to regulate rates for (a) sales in interstate commerce of natural gas sold for resale for ultimate public consumption and (b) transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce. The Act specifically provides that the NGA will not apply to other sale or transportation of natural gas or to the local distribution Df natural gas, or to the facilities used for such distribution, or to the production or gathering of natural gas.*
Natural Gas Design Stress – The estimated maximum tensile stress in the wall of the pipe in the circumferential orientation due to internal natural gas pressure that can be applied continuously with a high degree of certainty that failure of the pipe will not occur.
Natural Gas Distillate – Material removed from natural gas at the “heavy end” portion; that is, aliphatic compounds ranging from C4 to C8.
Natural Gas Liquids – The hydrocarbon components: propane, butanes, and pentanes (also referred to as condensate), or a combination of them that are subject to recovery from raw gas liquids by processing in field separators, scrubbers, gas processing and reprocessing plants, or cycling plants. The propane and butane components are often referred to as liquefied petroleum gases or LPG.
Natural Gas pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (Amended b) – The federal law providing jurisdiction by the Federal Government over the transportation of gas, which includes transmission and distribution and gathering operations in urban areas. The Secretary of Transportation, acting through the Materials Transportation Bureau, enforces the Act. Title 49 of the code of federal regulations, Part 192, contains the regulations issued under this Act. Department of Transportation (DOT) contracts with state regulatory agencies for some aspect of enforcement.
NO2 -Nitrogen Dioxide
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) – Designates a method of identifying the size of steel pipe without compromising the actual diameter data. Thus nominal one-inch pipe with the actual external diameter of 1.315 inch (33.40 mm) becomes NPS 1; nominal 14 inch pipe with internal diameter of 13.250 inch (336.55 mm) becomes NPS 14.
O3 Ozone Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) – A federal law, Public law 91-596, enacted in 1970, comprising federal standards for safety and health for people at work. The regulations issued under this Act can be found in Title 29, Part 1910, and Part 1926 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
OD – Outside Diameter
Odorant – Any material added to natural or LP gas in small concentrations to impart a distinctive odor. Odorants in common use include various mercaptans, organic sulfides, and blends of both.
Off-Peak Service – Service that is provided during periods of relatively low system demand.
Open Access – Non-discriminatory, fully equal access to transportation or transmission services offered by a pipeline or electric utility. *
Open Access Transporter – Once an intrastate or interstate pipeline commences self-implementing transportation services under Section 311 of the NGPA, it becomes an open access transporter and must then provide transportation services on an open access, nondiscriminatory basis and comply with the regulations set forth in Part 284 of the Commission’sregulations. In addition, once an interstate pipeline accepts a Part 284 blanket certificate, it is then an open access transporter. A pipeline which is “open” under Section 311 may terminate such service and “close” its system. However, once a pipeline accepts a blanket, it may not terminate open access services without first receiving Commission authorization to abandon its blanket certificate.
Open Season – A period of time in which potential customers can bid for pipeline services, and during which such customers are treated equally regarding priority in the queue for service. *
Operating Costs – Recurring costs related to day-to-day operations of a facility that are paid out of current revenue.
Operator – The party in control of the physical operation and maintenance of a well or other facility. *
OPS – Office of Pipeline Safety
Partial Looping – A method for increasing carrying capacity of a pipeline by constructing pipeline sections parallel to the existing pipeline for a portion of the distance between compressor or pump stations. The new lines are connected to the main pipeline at the beginning and end of each section.
Particulates – Minute particles of solid matter, such as cinders and flyash, that are contained in stack gases.
PHMSA – Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PI – Points of Intersection
Pig Internal Pipeline Inspection / Cleaning Device – A device used to clean or evaluate the internal surface of a pipeline (the process is called “pigging”). Pigs are usually barrel shaped, made of metal, and covered with metal brushes. They may also be made entirely of plastic and have rubber or plastic cups. They are inserted into the pipeline with a device called a pig-trap, and are pushed through the system by pressure from the fluid already flowing through the line, usually gas. They can detect imperfections and anomalies on the pipeline; also called a go-devil.
Pipe, Coated – Pipe that has been covered with a corrosion resistant coating or compound (such as epoxy) to prevent corrosion from soil conditions.
Pipeline – An entity engaged in the transportation of natural gas in interstate or intrastate commerce. Also, the actual facility itself. *
Pipeline Capacity – The maximum quantity of gas that can be moved through a pipeline system at any given time based on existing service conditions such as available horsepower, pipeline diameter(s), maintenance schedules, regional demand for natural gas, etc.
Pipeline Patrol – A general inspection of the pipeline right-of-way by foot, airplane, or land vehicle to observe surface conditions and activity along or on the right-of-way and noting changes in vegetation growth for indication of gas leakage. Receipt Point – The point on a pipeline’s system at which it receives natural gas into its system.*
Reliability – The degree to which the performance of the elements of a system results in power being delivered to consumers within accepted standards and in the amount desired. The degree of reliability may be measured by the frequency, duration, and magnitude of adverse effects on consumer service. *
Replacement Shipper – Any Shipper that executes a Gas Transportation Contract in the form prescribed by Iroquois’ Tariff, acquiring capacity rights from a Releasing Shipper.
Right-of-Way – A strip of land, the use of which is acquired for the construction and operation of a pipeline or some other facility; the land may be owned outright or an easement taken for a specific purpose.
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition – A system of remote control and telemetry used to monitor and control the transmission system. *
Seasonal Curtailment – A level of service that contractually restricts or limits service during certain periods of the year.
SEQRA – State Environmental Quality Review Act
Supplier – One who contracts with a pipeline for transportation of natural gas, and who retains title to all natural gas while it is being transported.
Tariff – A document filed by a regulated entity with either a federal or state commission. It lists the rates the regulated entity will charge to provide service to its customers as well as the terms and conditions that it will follow in providing service.*
Term – The proposed commencement and termination dates of service.
Therm – A unit of heating value equivalent to 100,000 British thermal units (Btu) (0.1 MMBtu). *
Throughput – Total of transportation volumes and tariff sales; all gas volumes delivered.
Tie In – To make a connection to an existing pipeline or piping.
Transportation – The act of moving gas from a designated receipt point to a designated delivery point GATE STATION pursuant to the terms of a contract between the transporter and the shipper. Generally it is the shipper’s own gas that is being moved.
Transportation Agreement – An agreement between a shipper and transportation company that defines the terms and conditions of the transportation services and transportation transfer to be provided.
Transportation Service – The act of moving gas from a receipt point to a delivery point GATE STATION pursuant to a contract between the shipper and the transporter. To the extent the shipper has paid for guaranteed, high-priority capacity in the pipeline, that shipper is entitled to firm service.
Transporter – The pipeline company that transports natural gas for a shipper. *
Turbine, Steam or gas – An enclosed rotary type of prime mover in which heat energy in steam or gas is converted into mechanical energy by the force of a high velocity flow of steam or gas directed against successive rows of radial blades fastened to a central shaft.
USDOT – United States Department of Transportation
USEPA – United States Environmental Protection Agency
USFWS – United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Valve – A mechanical device for controlling the flow of fluids and gases; types such as gate, ball, globe, needle, and plug valves are used.
Vent – A device installed on a pipeline that will allow gas to escape into the atmosphere under controlled conditions.
Venting – The planned release of natural gas to the atmosphere during depressurization or purging.